高雄市政府衛生局全球資訊網

三手菸的危害

發布日期:2019-08-06  發布單位:社區心衛中心
一般人常誤以為只有當吸菸者正在吸菸時,旁人所吸入的菸才會對身體造成傷害。有些吸菸者會採取一些措施保護其他人,例如:打開窗戶吸菸,跑到其他房間吸菸,打開電扇吸菸,或不在孩子或家人面前吸菸,以為這樣就不會對孩子或其他人造成傷害,或使傷害大大降低。但這其實是錯誤的。
與吸菸者同住的幼兒,除了要承受二手菸的危害外,還得面對「三手菸」的威脅。所謂「三手菸」(third-hand smoke),是指菸熄滅後在環境中殘留的污染物,研究證實,吸菸者即使不在孩子面前抽,但殘留在衣服、車子、房子內的三手菸一樣會導致血癌。
根據英國突變學期刊(Mutagenesis)發表三手菸致癌研究指出,尼古丁有很強的表面粘附力,會與空氣中的亞硝酸、臭氧等化合物發生化學反應,產生更強的新毒物,如亞硝胺等致癌物1,黏在衣服、家具、窗簾或地毯上。
美國兒科學(Pediatrics)發表的「三手菸對健康的影響和家庭禁菸的信念」研究報告也指出,三手菸殘留在環境中的毒性微粒,至少有11種高度致癌化合物,會造成兒童認知能力的缺陷,增加嬰幼兒哮喘機率以及中耳炎的風險,尤其對於在家中爬來爬去的幼兒威脅最大2
國民健康署再次呼籲,為了確保讓孩子遠離二手菸、三手菸的環境,請吸菸的家人即刻戒菸,還給家人一個無菸害的清新環境。特別是家中現在有寶寶或即將迎接新生命的誕生,現在正是戒菸的最佳時機,除了拯救自己的健康外,也能保護家人不受二手菸,甚至是三手菸的危害!

The Hazard of Third-Hand Smoke
Normally it is believed that the hazard of tobacco use only occurs when staying next to the smoker who is smoking, so there may be some measures taken by the tobacco users to protect their family from tobacco hazards, including either smoking next to an open window, in another room, with fans on, or not in front of the child or family members. The users believed that such measures could eradicate or greatly reduce the tobacco hazards. However, such concept has been proven to be incorrect.
Young children cohabiting with tobacco users not only exposed to the hazard of secondhand smoke, but also faced the threats of “third-hand smoke”. The so-called “third-hand smoke” refers to the residual pollutant in the environment after extinguishing the cigarettes. Previous studies have confirmed that without smoking in front of the children, the third-hand smoke residues in the smoker’s clothes, cars and house still may contribute to pediatric leukemia.
A study investigating the carcinogenesis of third-hand smoke published on the Mutagenesis journal in UK has shown that nicotine is a strong surface adhesive compound, which is highly possible to chemically react with compounds such as nitrites or ozone and thus generates stronger novel carcinogens1  (e.g. nitrosamine) attaching to the clothes, furniture, curtain or carpet.
A study “Beliefs about the health effects of "third-hand" smoke and home smoking bans” published on “Pediatrics” reported that the residual toxic particles in the environment derived from the third-hand smoke contained at least 11 highly carcinogenic compounds, which may result in pediatric cognitive deficit, increase the risks of infant asthma and otitis media. Crawling babies at home were at the greatest risks in particular.2
In conclusion, the Health Promotion Administration urges the public to participate in smoking cessation immediately to keep their children away from the environments of either secondhand smoke or third-hand smoke, and to create a smoke-free environment for their family. For those families with babies or are expecting newborns, it is the best timing to quit smoking now. By doing so, he or she not only rescues healthy personally, but also keeps the family away from the hazard of secondhand smoke or even third-hand smoke!
Source: Health Promotion Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare

 
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